- First Phase
- Second Phase
- Third Phase
- Church of Saint Francis of Assisi in Ouro Preto
- Church of Saint Francis of Assisi in São João Del Rey
- Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel in Sabará
The constructive surge in gold region was great and immediate. The first buildings were rural chapels, leaving intact the Ó in Sabará and the mother church of the Immaculate Conception (1715), followed by those of the current Cathedral of Mariana (1720), mother churches of São João del Rei (1721), Cachoeira do Campo (1722), in the district of Ouro Preto, and Tiradentes (1736).
The mother churches are part of the first phase of the Minas Gerais’ architecture, with adobe buildings or rammed earth of simple lines and straight on the facade, with wooden wedges and towers with pyramidal finish, covered with tiles. Internally, the spaces are rectangular, hard, at the nave, main chapel and sacristies on the sides. The Baroque ornamentation from the first phase of Portuguese national, studied both by Robert Smith and Germain Bazin, who were enchanted by these churches, the true “golden cave”. The altar in the nave is built into the wall in rectangular spaces containing excessive ornamentation, either in twisted columns that turn into concentric arches in the crowningtop or ornament shot (Aleijadinho made them double and with diverging rays), whether in phytomorphic and anthropomorphic motifs among which stand out little angels.
Among the most intact examples is the Chapel of Our Lady of Ó in Sabará, which has a plant in two sections, corresponding to the nave and the main chapel, atrium, choir, lateral extension and tower on the facade are later additions. The altarpieceornamental structure of stone or woodwork that rises on the back of the altar; generally according to the following classification: Jesuit or Mannerist (early seventeenth century); Portuguese national (1680-1720); Joanine (1720-1760); Rococo (1760-1816); and neoclassical (nineteenth century). His most important altarpiece is in the Church of St. Francis of Ouro Preto; drawings of São João del Rey and Carmo de Sabará. of the main chapel of gilt polychrome, dominant in the first phase, with twisted or Solomonicit is said of twisted column or carved spiral. columns and concentric archivolts, predominantly in the decoration of phytomorphic reasons. Its slot is by extremely elaborate finishing, as well as the throne, a piece of polychrome carvings and sculpture of angelornamental elements commonly used in altars and arches. The little ones are the cherubim and seraphim, archangels are the largest, as teenagers or young adults (in shutters and crownings the altars of almost all churches that Aleijadinho did). heads. The same accurate work is perceived in the carved ornamentation of the crossing-archarch that separates the central nave of the the chancel and the triumphal arch (design of the Mother Church of Barão de Cocais and St. Francis of Ouro Preto where the two pulpits were put in soapstone)., cymatiumtop finish of wall of a building, where sit the roof eaves and the triangle fronton. Internally, it is called real cymatium, place in which usually begin ornamental paintings., entablaturespart of the building or altarpiece above the columns., part of the building or altarpiece above the columns and moldings of panels ceilings and walls, with profuse appearance of vine motifs, floral elements and birds, which stand out in relief on the blue pictorial domain background.
The second construction phase already covers the churches of the third Franciscan and Carmelite brotherhoods. The construction technique is more accurate, using stone and stoneworkersofficial or master who tills the hewn stone; sculptor who carries out works with this type of material. building, enabling setbacks of the towers of the central body as in most churches built until 1760. The interior ornamentation has elements of the national phase of the Portuguese baroque, with reforms to the Johannine style lines (the reign of King John V is from 1707-1750). Is evident in the more elaborate carving the use of Solomonic columns, Atlanteanman figure sculpture that sustains column, pilaster, choir etc. (Choir of Carmo de Sabará and column bases as São João del Rey). angels at the base of the columns and steering wheels holding canopies in crowningstop or ornament shot (Aleijadinho made them double and with diverging rays).. The golden still predominates throughout the hoist. Updates are visible, as in mother churchesof Pilar (1735) and Antônio Dias (1735) in Ouro Preto, both remodeled by Antônio Francisco Pombal, uncle of Aleijadinho; Catas Altas (1750) and Ouro Branco (1717); and sororities as St. Ephigenia (1735) in Ouro Preto. Elliptical constructions like Saint Peter of the Clergy (1753) in Mariana and Our Lady of the Rosary (1757) in Ouro Preto, mark the evolution that has been reached the elliptical plant and a facade with late Borromini baroqueartistic style of the seventeenth century and part of the eighteenth, during the Protestant Reformation against the Catholic reform and the absolutist policy; stylistically it is associated with forms in movement, dramatic expressions, intense color, shadows and lights. bids.
The third phase is called Rococo as stated by the researcher Myriam Andrade Ribeiro de Oliveira in O Rococó Religioso no Brasil e seus Antecedentes Europeus (2003) – the most creative period of the Minas Gerais’ contribution to the colonial art. The rivalry of the third orders resulted in hiring the best craftsmen and architects, who flocked to the region from the north of Portugal. The large Carmelites and Franciscans third churches, positioned in the best lands of the urban grid, gained visibility with the slightly curved facade, as Carmo (1766-70), a Aleijadinho’s father’s project, Manoel Francisco Lisboa. The stone employment, abundant in the region, culminating in doorwayslarge door framed by ornamental composition (these compositions make Aleijadinho the great master, especially in Franciscan churches of Ouro Preto and São João del Rey and in the Carmelites in Sabará, Ouro Preto and São João del Rey, beyond that of Congonhas). carved by Aleijadinho in Franciscan churches of Ouro Preto (1770) and São João del Rei (1774), both designed by Aleijadinho and carried out in part with collaboration of Francisco de Lima Cerqueira. They are the highlight of rococoornamental style emerged in France during the reign of Louis XV (1710-1774) and characterized by the use of capricious curves, asymmetrical shapes and delicacy of decorative elements, such as stylized shells (rocailles), bonds, flowers, foliage, which tended a refined elegance; in Brazil last out neoclassicism (1816). ornamentation.Floor plans won only lines curves or more complex, with elliptical shape. The towers rounded up themselves and added side aisles along the navesinner part of the church from the entrance to main chapel; it is called main nave when this space is divided by pillars, columns or arches. to the sacristy. The light took over the nave and main chapelmajor chapel, where is the altar of a church., endowed with more architectural sculpture altarpieces that of previous phases. The gold gave way to a softer color, sometimes white, only with golden fillets in pulled curves of the new style that extends until the nineteenth century.
ÁVILA, Affonso e outros.
Barroco mineiro. Glossário de arquitetura e ornamentação. Belo Horizonte : Fund. Roberto Marinho e Fund. João Pinheiro, 1979.
Aleijadinho e a Escultura. Rio de Janeiro: Record, 1971.
OLIVEIRA, Myriam Andrade Ribeiro.
O rococó religioso no Brasil e seus antecedentes. São Paulo : Cosac & Naify, 2003.
A talha em Portugal. Lisboa: Livros Horizonte, 1963.
Congonhas do Campo. Rio de Janeiro: AGIR, 1973,
Igrejas barrocas do Brasil. Baroque Churches of Brazil. São Paulo: Metalivros, 2008.