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Exploring the 12 Prophets of Aleijadinho: a 3D visit

When French art critic Germain Bazin uses the term – the last great medieval saint maker – to refer to Aleijadinho, he feels this incorporation of historical and iconographic elements in the Minas Gerais’ master and goes beyond, seeking to understand the geniality of the mulatto craftsman. By bringing together the possibilities of the extravagant medieval iconography, especially the Turkish-style turbans – created from prints of Sluter and published by the Florentine master of Picture Chronicle, 1470, then expanded with the baroque expressiveness of the seventeenth century, Aleijadinho expands the myth of the prophets, inserting them into the open spaces of the churchyard, and dignified with the continuity of stone materials – at the beginning of the nineteenth century.

But what would be the unity trait among all the prophets, since the artist should follow the iconography and dictates of the church to clear the religious message, in contrast to enhancer elements of the message? It is not expected from the Baroque artist to create new possibilities that distinguish it from the others, but rather the improvement from the model, in this case, the brotherhood of the Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos. This first indication of freedom, far from the severity of religious orders, could be the key found by Bazin to exalt the sculptural set as a true spectacle that resembles a ballet.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Coronation of Thorns (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Coronation of Thorns (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Coronation of Thorns (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Coronation of Thorns (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Coronation of Thorns (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Coronation of Thorns (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Coronation of Thorns (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Coronation of Thorns (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Crucifixion (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Crucifixion (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Crucifixion (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Crucifixion (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Crucifixion (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Crucifixion (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Outside view of the Chapel of the Step of the Crucifixion (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Outside view of the Chapel of the Step of the Crucifixion (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Outside view of the Chapel of the Step of the Crucifixion (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Outside view of the Chapel of the Step of the Crucifixion (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Cross on His Back (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Cross on His Back (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Christ with the Cross on His Back. Chapel of the Step of the Cross on His Back (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Christ with the Cross on His Back. Chapel of the Step of the Cross on His Back (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Tearful woman. Chapel of the Step of the Cross on His Back (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Tearful woman. Chapel of the Step of the Cross on His Back (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Jerusalem woman with child. Chapel of the Step of the Cross on His Back (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Jerusalem woman with child. Chapel of the Step of the Cross on His Back (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Cross on His Back (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Cross on His Back (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by Francisco Xavier Carneiro. Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Prison (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1818). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Prison (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1818). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Prison (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1818). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Prison (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1818). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Prison (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1818). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Prison (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1818). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Restoration of the Chapel of the Step of the Prison with Judas and St. Peter (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1818). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Restoration of the Chapel of the Step of the Prison with Judas and St. Peter (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1818). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Restoration of the Chapel of the Step of the Prison (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1818). Santuário de Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, MG. (1757-1805).

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Restoration of the Chapel of the Step of the Prison (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1818). Santuário de Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, MG. (1757-1805).

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Outside view of the Chapel of the Step of the Last Supper (1794-1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Outside view of the Chapel of the Step of the Last Supper (1794-1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Last Supper (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Last Supper (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Last Supper (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Last Supper (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Last Supper (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Last Supper (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Last Supper (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Last Supper (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Last Supper (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Last Supper (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Last Supper (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Last Supper (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Last Supper (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Chapel of the Step of the Last Supper (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). St. Peter and St. James asleep. Chapel of the Step of the Garden (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1818). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). St. Peter and St. James asleep. Chapel of the Step of the Garden (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1818). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). John the Evangelist asleep. Chapel of the Step of the Garden (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1818). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). John the Evangelist asleep. Chapel of the Step of the Garden (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1818). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Christ of the Garden of Olives. Chapel of the Step of the Garden (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1818). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Christ of the Garden of Olives. Chapel of the Step of the Garden (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1818). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Door of the Step of the Garden. Chapel of the Step of the Garden (1794-1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Door of the Step of the Garden. Chapel of the Step of the Garden (1794-1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Outside view of the Chapel of the Step of the Garden (1794-1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Outside view of the Chapel of the Step of the Garden (1794-1799). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 - 1814). Angel of Agony. Chapel of the Step of the Garden (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1818). Sanctuary of Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1757-1805. Photo: Percival Tirapelli.

Antônio Francisco Lisboa, Aleijadinho (1730/38 – 1814). Angel of Agony. Chapel of the Step of the Garden (1794-1799). Polychrome wood by master Manuel da Costa Ataíde (1818). Santuário de Bom Jesus de Matosinhos, Congonhas, MG. (1757-1805). Foto: Arquivo pessoal Percival Tirapel

BAZIN, Germain.
Aleijadinho e a Escultura. Rio de Janeiro : Record, 1971.


COSTA, Lucio.
Antonio Francisco Lisboa, o Aleijadinho. in: O universo mágico do barroco brasileiro. Emanuel Araujo (org). São Paulo : SESI,1998.


OLIVEIRA, Myriam Andrade Ribeiro.
Aleijadinho : Passos e Profetas. Belo Horizonte: Editoras Itatiaia/EDUSP,1984.


MACHADO, Lourival G. Barroco Mineiro.
São Paulo : Perspectiva, 1973.


TAVEIRO, Celso.
O Aleijadinho em Congonhas: as hipóteses de Germain Bazin. in Barroco. Ouro Preto : UFMG, nº 13, 1985.


SILVA, Soraia Maria.
Profetas em movimento. São Paulo : Edusp/Imprensa Oficial, 2001.


SMITH, Robert.
Congonhas do Campo. Rio de Janeiro : AGIR, 1973.

Dictionaries

CHEVALIER, Heab e GHEERBRANT, Alain.
Dicionário de Simbolos. Rio de Janeiro : Ed. José Olympio, 1990.

JENNI, E. e C. WESTERMANN.
Diccionario Teológico Manual del Antiguo Testamento. Madrid : Ed. Cristandad, 1978.

SANCHÉZ, Tomás Parra.
Dicionário da Bíblia. Aparecida : Editora Santuário, 1997.